четверг, 24 января 2013 г.

10. Rebuilt Maqams and Modern replicas of Maqams

The first sign that an old Muslim shrine went through a thorough renovation or was rebuilt is the green color of its dome. The Palestinian Arabs started the tradition of painting the domes and the doors of a shrine green quite recently — ten years ago. In the old days all maqams had white domes. The travelers of the 19th and early 20th centuries note this (Geikie 1888, I 67; McCown 1922, 48); this can be seen in colour drawings of that time.


It can be assumed that green as the colour of the domes of Palestinian shrines arose under the influence of The Green Dome built above the tomb of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina, which was painted green in 1837. Masses of domes of the Palestinian mosques were repainted green at the beginning of this century. The dome of the Great Mosque of Jenin became green in 2005. The domes of the Sidna ‘Ali Mosque in Herzliya were painted green in 2007. The domes of the el-Zaytuna Mosque and the Jezzar Pasha Mosque in Acre turned green in 2009. The dome the Ras al-Amud Mosque in East Jerusalem is green since 2011. The central domes of the complex Neby Musa (Prophet Moses), located in the Judean Desert, were painted green in 2009.

Many domes of mosques and Islamic shrines were repainted green by "Al-Aqsa Foundation" ("مؤسسة الأقصى للوقف والتراث"), based in Umm el-Fahm (Post and photos of 2010; Post and photos of 2011; Post and photos of 2012).


Maqam Sheikh Ahmad el-Dajani
مقام الشيخ أحمد الدجاني
קבר שייח' אחמד אל-דג'אני

Not far from Turbat el-Kubakiya near Jerusalem hotel "Leonardo Plaza" stands the tomb of Sheikh al-Dajani. Apparently, this maqam is a modern replica or a rebuilt construction, possibly of the size and configuration of the old maqam.



Sheikh Ahmad el-Dajani (1459–1561) was the head of the Sufis in Jerusalem and a recognized religious leader. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent appointed him the keeper of the David tomb on the Mount Zion.

Picture 1940



Visited: 30.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

Maqam Imam ‘Ali (Ramla)
مقام الإمام علي - الرمله
קבר אימאם עלי

Another tomb of Imam ‘Ali, or the tomb of another Imam ‘Ali is situated in Ramla. E. Palmer says: "The name applies to the kubbeh or 'shrine' at Biaret Heiderah — the wells of the declivity" (1881, 214). The structure was located on the old road from Ramla to Lod. In aerial photographs of Ramla of the 1940s can be clearly seen the object surrounded by the gardens.





Now it is a newly built maqam with the dimensions 5.23 x 5.12 m, the north side of which is adjacent to a sort of a hall (5.12 x 4.38 m). In the beginning it might have been a closed type of annex, like zavia, with one big arch. The entrance to the maqam is on the north side. There are two windows – in the western and the eastern walls. In front of the mihrab there is a renovated cenotaph covered with green cloth.

View from the south-east

View from the west

View from the south

Interior


Recently Arab youth from the villages of ‘Ein Hod and Fureydis (near Carmel) cleaned the Maqam removing the dirt and debris. In reports about this Imam ‘Ali is incorrectly called "Sheikh" (مقام الشيخ علي في الرملة). Arabic website "Al-Shams" illustrates how actively Muslim shrines are reconstructed and built anew in Ramla.

In 2006 archaeological excavations were carried out close to the maqam. A Muslim children’s cemetery of Mamluk period was discovered: the people buried here were not older than 15 (Hadashot Arkheologiyot).

Route. Maqam is situated on a dirt road near the Highway 434, which leads from Lod to Ramla, 400 meters short of the intersection with the Highway 44 (crossroads Ma'asiyahu or Ta'avorah). But it is not easy to get on this dirt road. First you need to turn from Highway 434 onto Lohamei Beitar, turn around on it and only then drive on that dirt road. The exact location see on my map.

Location of the object on Google Maps
References: Palmer 1881, 214 (Sheet XIII); Stewardson 1888, 130; Hadashot Arkheologiyot


Maqam Sheikh el-Katanani
مقام الشيخ القطناني
קבר שייח' אל-קטנאני

Those who drive along the Highway 44 can see a Muslim structure located at the entrance to the Holon. Its construction began in 2005 and continues to this day. This is a thorough rebuilding of the Maqam Sheikh el-Katanani related to the former Arab-Palestinian village Yazur (Palmer 1881, 218). Katanani's Family was very famous.



View from the north-east. Photo of 2012

View from the south-west. Photo of 2004 before reconstruction. Source

A. Petersen after examining the maqam in 1991 described it this way: "It is built to a square plan with a shallow dome resting on an octagonal drum. On the north side of the building are some ruined concrete additions. The building is entered through a doorway in the middle of the north side. Inside there are windows on the west and east sides flanked by niches. In the middle of the south wall is a shallow niche decorated with inscriptions painted in henna. The dome rests on pendentives". (2001, 312)

Photo of 1991 (from the book by A. Petersen)

The mihrab. Photo of 1991 (from the book by A. Petersen)

The mihrab. Photo of 2012

Plan of Yazur of 1948

In this figure, it is clear that near the maqam was a Muslim cemetery. It is completely destroyed.

Opposite the maqam, on the other side of Highway 44, stands a synagogue with seven domes, the former Muslim shrine — the Tomb of Imam ‘Ali. Speaking about this shrine or Maqam Sheikh el-Katanani, C. Conder mentions a "kubbeh, which is said to have been once a church" (SWP II 258).

Photo of 1887

Photo of 1921



Visited: 01.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: SWP II 258; Palmer 1881, 218 (Sheet XIII); Stewardson 1888, 139; Benvenisti 2000, 292; Khalidi 1992, 262; Petersen 2001, 312
Wikipedia: Yazur

Maqam Mu‘az ibn Jabal (Sheikh Mu‘alla)
مقام مُعاذ إبن جبل - الشيخ معلى
קבר אבן ג'בל - שייח' מעלא

Maqam was built in the Mamluk period. Now it is considered to be dedicated to the memory of Mu‘az ibn Jabal, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, a Muslim commander who died of the infamous plague in the Emmaus in 639. However, earlier, in the 19th century, this place was known as the tomb of Sheikh Mu'alla (Palmer 1881, 328; Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 483).

Up until 2005 one could see the original monument, which was kept in relatively good condition. It was a popular tourist attraction. It is not known what prompted the modern Muslims to disassemble the maqam to the ground and rebuild it, preserving the existing proportions. The fact that it were Muslims, who did it, is proved by the presence of a green dome — a standard feature of all modern replicas of maqams. Also during reconstruction a number of architectural details of the old monument has been lost forever. Modern builders reproduced only the lintel above the entrance to the tomb: in the center of it there is a triangle enclosed in a circle; on the both sides of it are bowls or jugs.

View from the west


The lintel

The mihrab

M. Sharon examined the monument in the 1990s before its reconstruction and described it so: "The sanctuary of Shaykh Mu‘alla. An oblong building, 11x7 m., with a spherical dome, built over the highest hill in the area and overlooking the Valley of Ayalon to its east and west, the hills of Samaria to its north, and the two major roads leading from the coast to Jerusalem on the east. There is no sign that there has ever been a tomb in the structure, which makes it a commemorative sanctuary. It consists of a central, almost completely square hall, 4.10x4.80 m., flanked by two chambers, with no partitions but clearly divided by pointed arches springing from pilasters and reaching a height of about 3 metres from the present ground level. The entrance to the sanctuary is through a gate, 1.96 m. high and 1.23 m. wide. It had an iron door, which was probably renewed a few times, with hinges from periods later than the time of the building.

Photo of 1979 (Source)

Photo of 1990s. View from the north

The building is massive, with walls that are 0.90 m. thick, built with well cut and cemented stones and fully plastered on the inside. It is a typical Mamluk building, with the dome rising over a frieze and resting on four pointed arches with pendentives. The central hall is the main prayer area. A very beautiful mihrab, l m. deep and 1.36 m. wide, was built directly opposite the entrance door. Its lower part is constructed of three rows of well-hewn solid local limestone, over which rests the semi-spherical dome of the mihrab and from which its pointed arch springs. The mihrab in the southern wall protrudes on the outside more than 0.60 m. out from the wall line.

The lintel of the entrance gate is decorated with three figures engraved in relief: a triangle inside a circle flanked by two candlesticks in a representation of gates". (CIAP I 83–84)

Photo of 2002. View from the north-east

Photo of 2002. The lintel

Maqam is located on a hill and is visible from the 1st Highway near Latrun Interchange. To get to it drive along a dirt road in the Ayalon Park (Canada Park).

Visited: 07.10.11
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Palmer 1881, 328 (Sheet XVII); Stewardson 1888, 139; Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 483; Sharon, CIAP I 83–84
INature: Canada Park

Maqam (Qubbat) Sheikh Murad
مقام الشيخ مراد
קבר שייח' מוראד

Nowadays it's hard to get on the territory of the old Muslim cemetery in the south of Tel Aviv, because it is fenced and closed to the public. Here stands an impressive structure with two domes, known since 19th century — the maqam, or qubbat, of Sheikh Murad. Its construction is attributed to the Mamluk period. The first to report about this maqam was C. Clermont-Ganneau in connection with the discovery of a part of bás-relief with inscriptions in Latin and a stone with an inscription of the 14th century in Arabic (ARP II 152–154). Later the tomb of Sheikh Murad appeared on British maps of Jaffa. According to A. Petersen, "The tomb consists of a square chamber containing a tall dome supported on squinches. Inside is the cenotaph of shaykh Murad. The entrance is on the south side". (2001, 169)

Photo of 2000. View from the south-east

Recently, the tomb went through a thorough reconstruction: the masonry was set up again, both domes plastered, a steel door installed, the bars set on windows. Note also that the entrance to the maqam has always been on the north side.


Route. Sheikh Murad Cemetery is located on Derech Kibbutz Galuyot, between the streets Israel Misalant and Sderot Hachmei Lublin. In Tel Aviv "Sheikh Murad House" built in the 19th century and located 250 meters to the north of the cemetery is more well-known.



Visited: 11.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Palästina-Vereins II 161; Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 152–154; Quarterly statement VI 270; Quarterly statement XXX 246; Petersen 2001, 169
Wikipedia: Sheikh Murad Cemetery

Maqam Sheikh el-Sandahawi
مقام الشيخ الصنداهاوي
קבר שייח' אל-סנדחאוי

Over the tomb of Sheikh el-Sandahawi in the Arab town of Kafr Qara a modern mosque with gilded dome and high white minaret was built. When we arrived, it was a time for prayer and local residents all came to the mosque, so we didn’t have a chance to have a good look at the tomb.




But we have a detailed description from A. Petersen at our disposal, who examined the maqam in 1994 before the rapid construction started at this place. "The tomb comprises two main parts, a domed chamber and a vaulted room to the east. The tomb chamber is built out of large square blocks of stone which have been recently repointed. The doorway is in the centre of the north side. Above the doorway is a small rectangular recess which probably contained an inscription (now removed). Large arches spring from four corner piers above which is a dome supported on pendentives (approximate interior height 5m). The mihrab is a deeply recessed niche (1.42m high) in the centre of the south wall. There are also small niches in the east wall and two on the south wall either side of the mihrab. The cenotaph of the shaykh is located in the south-west corner and is aligned east-west. The cenotaph has head and foot stones and a lid with a central ridge and sloping sides". (2001, 284)

Photo of 1994. View from the north (from the book by A. Petersen)

Photo of 1994. The mihrab (from the book by A. Petersen)

Plan of the maqam (from the book by A. Petersen)
Now the maqam is situated in the south-eastern corner of the prayer hall, the ceiling of which is combined with the roof of the maqam (no dome). Former entrance to the tomb on the north side is blocked. As the south wall of the maqam now coincides with the south wall of the mosque, the burial chamber is completely walled up. They could build a mosque next to the shrine, as in Salim, on the territory of Palestinian Authority; or provide enough space for the shrine inside the mosque, as in the Mosque Sidna ‘Ali in Herzliya, preserving, if possible, the appearance of the shrine and its architectural features; but instead, builders in Kafr Qara made the maqam entirely subordinated to the new building. In this case the structure of the shrine was radically changed. As a result the maqam as a monument is, in fact, lost.

Friday prayer in the el-Sandahawi Mosque. Right — the maqam

Route. From Highway 65 drive into Kafr Qara, reach the center of the city; then drive along the street marked on Google Maps as Tareq Ben Ziyad to the south-western part of the city till you reach the modern mosque. Note that the locals do not know the street with such name. So if you’re lost you'd better ask them where the el-Sandahawi Mosque is (مسجد الصندهاوي).

Visited: 14.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Quarterly statement IX 98; Palmer 1881, 153 (Sheet VIII); Stewardson 1888, 140; Petersen 2001, 284


Maqam Sheikh Tamim (al-Dari)
مقام الشيخ تميم الداري
קבר שייח' תמימ אל-דארי

In works of C. Conder and on the map of Palestine Exploration Fund (Sheet XX) this maqam is identified as Sheikh et-Teim (Conder 1879, I 228; Palmer 1881, 379). On the British map of Palestine of 1941 it’s called Sh. Tamim. Probably they meant Tamim al-Dari, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, the Muslim commander who governed Hebron, Beit ‘Einun and their surroundings. He died in 661, and according to tradition was buried near Beit Jibrin.

However, M. Sharon notes that "In the case of Bayt Jubrin, the village possessed these three types of sanctuaries, connected with Nabi Jibrin (Jubril), the sahabi Tamim ad-Dari, and two saints, Barraq and al-A'jam. To which all of the three (or more) of these three saints around Bayt Jubrin the inscription belongs it is very difficult to determine, in spite of the information that it originally belonged to the sanctuary of "Shaykh Tamim"". (CIAP II 142)

View from the north-west

View from the south-west

Interior

This tomb has also been undergoing a complete reconstruction because it is situated on Shvil Israel and is a popular tourist attraction. However, now the tomb is closed to the public, probably till the end of the restoration work. It is located at the Highway leading from Beit Guvrin to Beit Nir, a mile from Guvrin road junction. Nowadays there is no sign of the presence of Muslims at this place.


Photo of 1994 (from the book by A. Petersen)

Plan of the maqam (from the book by A. Petersen)
A. Petersen in 1994 saw already refurbished monument and here is his description: "In the south-west corner of the enclosure is a large structure comprising three main elements: a portico, a tomb chamber, and a prayer room. The portico consists of a deep iwan covered with a cross-vault. There are three niches in the east wall, and a doorway at the back (south) leads into the tomb chamber.

The doorway at the back of the portico leads into an area roofed with a wide arch which in turn opens into the main part of the chamber. This part is roofed with a dome. The hemispherical dome rests directly on a four spherical pendentives which have traces of muqarnas mouldings. There is a mihrab in the middle of the south wall flanked by two rectangular niches (one either side). There are also niches in the east wall as well as two more niches in the west wall. The west wall also contains a window. In the centre of the room is a large rectangular cenotaph aligned east-west with a headstone at the west end. The sides of the cenotaph are clad with marble panels and the headstone is a fragment of a marble column." (2001, 122)

Photo of 1987 (from the book by W. Khalidi)
In the photo of 1987 in the book by W. Khalidi we can see the remains of the shrine in the former Beit Jibrin, near the Israeli prefabricated houses; but this is apparently not the maqam of Sheikh Tamim, but the tomb of one of the other above-mentioned saints. On the British map of 1941 to the north-east of the maqam of Sheikh Tamim stands the tomb of Sheikh Mahmud. It mentions Victor Guérin (Judee, II 316). We were looking for this place to the north of the present kibbutz Beit Guvrin, but in vain.

Visited: 31.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Guérin, Judee II 316; Conder 1879, I 228; Palmer 1881, 379 (Sheet XX); Stewardson 1888, 140; Canaan 1927, 239f; Khalidi 1992, 210; Sharon, CIAP II 142; Petersen 2001, 122
Wikipedia: Tamim al-Dari; Bayt Jibrin

1 комментарий:

  1. The post is very much long. But, I am really loving the pictures of beautiful shrines and maqaams which are very precious to muslims. Its sad to see that Israeli's dont respect our religion.

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